Challenges of Social Transformation

Crisis of development: Link 1   Link 2

Poverty, deprivation and inequality: Link 1   Link 2   Link 3   Link 4

Violence against women: Link 1

Caste conflicts:

Ethnic conflicts:

Communalism:  Link 1

Religious revivalism:  Link 1   Link 2

Illiteracy and disparities in education:

Population dynamics

Population size, growth, composition and distribution: Please refer to latest census Link 1 

Components of population growth: birth, death, migration

Population policy and family planning:

Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive healthreproductive health 1

Social movements in India

Peasants and farmers movements: Link 1   Link 2

Women’s movement:  Link 1

Backward classes and Dalit movement:  Link 1   Link 2

Environmental movements:

Ethnicity and Identity movements: Link 1

Politics and Society

Nation, democracy and citizenship: Citizenship

Political parties: Link 1

Pressure group: Link 1

Social and political elite:

Regionalism and decentralization of power: Link 1

Secularization: Link 1

Industrialization and Urbanization in India

Evolution of modern industry in India: Link 1

Growth of urban settlements in India: Link 1   Link 2   Link 3   Link 4   Link 5

Working class – structure, growth, class mobilization: Link 1   Link 2    Link 3

Informal sector: Link 1

Child labor: Link 1

Slums and deprivation in urban areas: Link 1

Rural and Agrarian transformation in India:

Programmes of rural development…: Link 1

Green revolution and social change:

Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture:

Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration: Rural labour   Migration 1   Migration 2   Migration 3    Migration 4

Visions of Social Change in India

Idea of development planning and mixed economy: Link 1

Constitution, law and social change: Link 1

Education and social change: Link 1

Religion and Society

Religious communities in India: Tribal religion   Hinduism   Jainism and Buddhism   Christianity   Islam   Sikhism

Problems of religious minorities: Link 1

Systems of Kinship in India

Lineage and descent in India: Kinship 1   Kinship 2   Kinship 3   Kinship 4

Types of kinship systems: Same as above

Family and marriage in India: Family 1   Family 2   Family 3   Marriage 1   Marriage 2    Marriage 3   Marriage 4

Household dimensions of the family: Household 1   Household 2

Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour: SDOL

Social classes in India

Agrarian class structure:  Link 1

Industrial class structure:  Link 1

Middle classes in India:  Link 1

Tribal communities in India

Link 1   Link 2   Link 3   Link 4   Link 5

Definitional problems:

Geographical spread:

Colonial policies and tribes:

Issues of integration and autonomy:

Caste System

Perspectives on the study of caste systems:

Features of caste system:


Rural and Agrarian Social Structure

The Idea of Indian village and village studies: Link 1

Agrarian social structure:

Evolution of land tenure system:

Land reforms: Link 1

UPSC Sociology – Paper 1 IGNOU topic wise notes


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